Skin pigmentation disorders cause an uneven skin tone, where areas or patches of skin can turn darker in colour. This often occurs when there is an overproduction of melanin in the skin cells.
There are different types of pigmentation which include:
- Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is often the result of acne, friction, or aggressive treatments such as chemical peels and laser. This type of pigmentation can improve with time and is treatable with topical products.
- Melasma is more common in women. It appears on the face in large brown patches with an indistinct border. It is often triggered by hormonal changes but can be made worse by excessive sun exposure, certain medications, stress, and pregnancy.
- Solar Lentigines are the pigmentation type also known as liver spots, sun spots, or age spots. They are pigmentated spots which may vary in colour and size. They can appear anywhere on the body and are caused by UV rays from sun exposure.
- Freckles are a very common type of pigmentation but whether you get them can be influenced by your genetics. These small dots are often the very first sign of sun damage, they develop after repeated sun exposure and are particularly common in people with a fairer complexion.